These involve a mold to create patterns in the sand for the molten metal. In this process granular is coated with a mixture of clay, water and in some cases another additive, the additive helps to harden and hold the mold shape to withstand the pressure of molten metal. Sand is compacted through a mechanical machine which stirred and mashed the sand around a pattern to create mold.
The process is simple, versatile and cost effective; sand is inexpensive and very resistance to elevated temperature. Sand casting can easily achieve higher production rate.